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Foods Glossary Dictionary

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AGAR-agar   " Can be used in place of animal gelatin or pectin"

A sea weed (alga) tasteless, not habit forming. It is a non-irritating colloid which absorbs moisture rapidly and retains it. This rapid absorption of moisture throughout the intestinal tract supplies bulk and lubrication and increases peristaltic action. A relief from constipation. Does not cause griping. Agar-agar is used as a gelling agent in salads, soups and desserts in place of animal gelatin or pectin. It gells readily at room temperature and a little goes a long way. May be used in low carbohydrate, low protein and other special diets. BASIC PROPORTIONS: 3 1/2 cups liquid and 2 Tbs. flakes or 3 1/2 cups liquid and 1 Tbs. granulated. For softer jell: 2 cups liquid and 1 Tbs. flakes. Proportions may vary   somewhat with the additions of fruit.

ARROWROOT FLOUR   " Can be used in place of cornstarch"

A pure nutritious starch also known as arrowroot starch or powder. Arrowroot powder is made from beaten pulp of tuberous rootstocks of a tropical American plant. It is not a refined product   but simply a smooth textured dried and powdered root, yielding an easily digested starch with a calcium ash, and some trace minerals. Suitable in infant and convalescent diets and can be used in place of cornstarch to thicken fruits, soups and gravy. Basic proportions: 1 cup water and 1 1/2 Tbs. arrowroot. Bring to boil to thicken.


Both are thick rich syrups that can be used interchangeably with honey. Barley malt syrup = barley syrup = malt syrup = dark malt syrup = malted cereal syrup = extract of malted barley   Notes:  This tastes a bit like molasses, and it's not as sweet as sugar or honey.  It's mostly used to make beer, but it's also used to make breads or other baked goods.    Substitutes:  molasses (1 cup barley malt syrup = 2/3 cup molasses) OR rice bran syrup (1 cup barley malt syrup = 4/3 rice bran syrup) OR maple syrup. Brown rice syrup = rice syrup = rice bran syrup = rice malt  = rice syrup    Notes:      Health buffs like this because it contains complex sugars, which are absorbed more slowly into the bloodstream.  It's about half as sweet as ordinary table sugar. Some rice syrups include barley malt, and may pose a problem for people with gluten allergies.  Substitutes:   maple syrup (substitute 3/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons liquid for each cup of brown rice syrup) OR molasses (substitute 1/2 cup for each cup of brown rice syrup) OR barley malt syrup (substitute 3/4 cup for each cup of brown rice syrup) OR honey (substitute 3/4 C honey plus 2 tablespoons liquid for every cup of brown rice syrup


An unfermented soy sauce substitute made from soybeans and distilled water. It is a liquid protein concentrate, derived from soybeans, that contains the following Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids in naturally occurring amounts: Alanine, Arginine, Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Leucine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Tryosine, Valine. Great on Salads & Dressings, Soups, Veggies, Rice & Beans, Tofu, Wok & Stir-fries, Tempeh, Casseroles, Potatoes, Jerky, Popcorn, Gravies & Sauces, Macrobiotics.

CAROB   " Can be used in place of chocolate"

Commonly called " St. John's Bread," Honey Locust. Finely ground pods from budded trees are made into carob flour. Carob powder is a rich source of the following important nutrients: Thiamine-B1, Riboflavin-B2, Niacin, Vitamin A, and Calcium. Carob also contains Potassium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Silicon and Iron. Rich in natural sugars, low in starch, low in fat (2% fat as commonly compared with 52% fat in chocolate). Carob powder contains Pectin, good for regulating digestion. Delicious in brownies, hot drinks, cakes and " confections without objections."   3 Tbs. carob and 2 Tbs. water equal 1 square of chocolate. Good for babies too---supplying extra calcium and phosphorous for teeth and bones. resembles cocoa in appearance and flavor. For those who wish to restrict their intake of sugar, caffeine, and saturated fats, carob is the healthy alternative to chocolate. Because of its natural sweetness, you will need to cut the sweetener in recipe in half when replacing cocoa powder.


Use in place of chocolate chips in any recipe. Be sure you are choosing one that is free of dairy and sweetened naturally with malted barley.

COCONUT   " Coconut milk can be used as a liquid in recipes"

The edible fruit of the coconut palm. A most important product of the tropics. The milk is a sweet and nutritious beverage and can be used as a liquid in recipes. The dried meat is delicious and when pressed yields an edible oil also used in soaps, shampoos, lip balm, etc. Cold pressed coconut oil, although a saturated fat, has a lower melting point than vegetable shortenings and margerines which have undergone a process called " hydrogenation" . Homemade coconut oil can be made by finely grinding the meat and catching the drippings in a bowl. It will partially solidify at room temperatures, but will melt in the palm of your hand. However, if used, should be sparingly. Coconut can be blended with other ingredients in making tasty nut milks, ice cream, and cookies.

CARDAMON or CORIANDER " When combined, they make a great substitute for cinnamon"

Both spices found in any local grocery store or health food store. Cardamom is one of the most valued spices in the world and placed second only to black pepper. Cardamom has a pleasant aroma with a characteristic, light pungent taste. It gives a warm feeling in the mouth. The seeds of cardamom produce the warm sensation.  Cardamom is an ingredient in Christmas cookies, Danish and Swedish cookies, coffee cakes, pastries, and candies. It adds a delightful essence to applesauce, sliced oranges, grape jelly, and fruit salads.  Coriander has a mild, distinctive taste similar to a blend of lemon and sage. Ground Coriander seed is traditional in desserts and sweet pastries as well as in curries' dishes with South American, Indian, Mediterranean, and African origins. Add it to stews and marinades for a Mediterranean flavor.  There is a citrus undertone similar to orange peel. In the Old Testament " manna" is described as " white like Coriander Seed." (Exodus 16:31) The Romans spread it throughout Europe and it was one of the first spices to arrive in America. When combined, they make a great substitute for cinnamon. (Cinnamon can be an irritating spice).

ENER-G EGG REPLACER   " Great substitute for both egg yolk and egg whites"

A non-dairy powdered leavening and binding agent used as a substitute for eggs in baked goods.  This egg substitute works well for all your baking needs and replaces both egg whites and egg yolks. It is made from tapioca flour, potato starch and leavening.

GRAINS   " Best if freshly ground"

Cereal grains - an important staple food. Each grain kernel is actually a single -seeded fruit of various cereal grasses, including Wheat, Barley, Buckwheat, Millet, Oats, Rice, Rye, Corn, Brown Rice, etc. A single kernel can be separated into 3 parts, mainly the germ or heart of  grain,  which  sprouts  when  the  seed  is  planted the bran layers or covering of the grain and the endosperm or largest part of the grain. Grains contain approximately 25-30 vitamins and minerals and are primary sources of B1, B2, B6, and Protein, also containing other nutrients such as : Calcium, Iron, Phosphorous, Magnesium, etc. Freshly ground flour made from wheat and other whole grains may be used in making wholesome breads, thus preserving many naturally occurring nutrients which are lost in the milling process. Grains and bread, often referred to as " the Staff of Life" are a principle part of man's dietary.


A gum from the bark of various trees which is used in foods and various cosmetics. Gum Karaya can be used in small amounts in ice creams for a smoother texture. Obtainable at Herb supply houses. In making ice cream use approximately 1/4 tsp. to every 2 qts. ice cream. Do a little experimenting to obtain desired results. (slippery elm powder can also be used to make smooth ice cream).

HONEY   " Can be used in place of white sugar in baking or cooking"

It is mentioned in the bible over 50 times, and it is the only natural sweet available that is not produced by man. Used in moderation, it is well tolerated by both adults and children. It is a naturally pre-digested food product that is produced by honey bees from the nectar and pollen of flowers, differing widely in flavor, color, and trace elements. Honey, a unique food with a long history, is the oldest sweet known to mankind.   Natural raw honey has been used throughout the centuries for its' therapeutic and medicinal values, since bacteria will not grow in raw honey, and has been found to possess antiseptic, wound healing qualities.

Honey is a carbohydrate made up of two invert or simple sugars --- levulose (fructose or fruit sugar) and dextrose (glucose or grape sugar) readily absorbed and easy digested. Natural unfiltered honey (unclarified)  (Note: clarifying is a process which removes the slight the slight cloudiness that may be present, resulting in crystal-clear, brilliant honey, but less nourishing than unclarified honey)  contains small amounts of minerals, traces of protein and B vitamins as well as vitamin K, which is know to inhibit tooth decay by halting the formation of acid bacteria  in the mouth. Cane sugar, on the other-hand, loses Vitamin K in the process of refining.

Refined sugar which is 99.95% sucrose, is know as being an " empty calorie" type non-food. It is white because the vitamins and minerals needed by body to metabolize the sugar have been processed out. Brown sugar is white sugar to which a small amount of molasses has been added for coloring. Studies and experiments by Dr, John Yudkin, renowned physician-author of Sweet and Dangerous, and other researchers reveal potential risk to the health of the heart as well as other health hazards from refined sugar consumption such as: obesity, arthritis, diabetes, tooth decay, etc..

It requires 556 bees to gather a full pound of honey. The bees have to fly 35, 584 miles to gather this pound, or more than once around the world. Honey in the honeycomb, as is naturally provided, nothing added - nothing taken away, is the best way to eat it. Read Proverbs 16:24, 24:13, 25:16, and 25:27. A nectar from heaven.

LECITHIN   " Acts like a preservative"

A food extracted from the soybean containing phosphorus, choline and inositol. Lecithin is an important constituent of all the organs of the human body, and especially the brain, liver, kidneys, and nervous tissue. Lecithin helps to emulsify cholesterol in the body, and may prevent accumulation of fat in the liver, as well as aid in the absorption and utilization of fats. Lecithin plays an important part in maintaining a healthy nervous system. Lecithin is available in both liquid and granule form. When used in bread and other baked goods --- results in better texture and grain, and more tender crust. Acts as a preservative.

LEGUMES     (Pulse, beans)

The seed of a pod bearing plant, such as peas, beans and lentils. A rich source of protein, B vitamins, iron, calcium and phosphorous. When legumes are combined with grains and seeds, the limiting amino acids will balance or complement each other, resulting in a complete protein equal or exceeding that of meat, eggs, cheese or milk. Sprouting legumes increases the Vitamin C content and often assists those who may have difficulty in digesting beans.


Germinated grain, usually barley, softened by steeping in water. Its' carbohydrate content (dextrin, maltose) a diastase (an enzyme or ferment in plant cells, such as in sprouting grains and malt, and in the digestive juice which converts starch into sugar) and its protein content, is responsible for its use as a nutrient. Promotes bowel regularity. Malt can be used in milk drinks or sprinkled on fruit. An excellent addition to bread recipes, malt not only promotes yeast activity, but also gives better body and texture, while enhancing flavor of other ingredients.


There is a product on the market made from Peanuts and Cashew Nuts with added dry malt. A good source of protein, and calories. Delicious on fruit and cereal, also in milk and homemade ice cream.


A favorite fruit of the orient and the finest fruit of the tropics. Mangos are grown in the U. S. on a small scale. The Haden mango is similar to a peach. Time required to ripen depends on temperature and the stage of maturity when picked. The mango is riper near the seed than on the outside. Peel mango starting on the top or stem end. Peel downward. When slicing, use a slight sawing motion following contour of flat seed. Remove each side first, or the more flat portions, then trim the edges from the seed. Mango enthusiasts nibble the last bits that cling to the seed.

Principal uses: 1. Served cold as fruit dessert --- sliced or diced. 2. used in fruit salads with peaches or pineapple or in gelatin, or ice cream. Delicious served any number of different ways. Excellent source of Vitamin A.


A thick dark colored sticky syrup which is drained in the process of refining raw sugar. Ranging from light to dark brown (depending on refining) with a sweet distinctive flavor. Blackstrap molasses, a bit stronger in flavor is the residue left from further extracting sugar from the cane or beet. Molasses is a rich source of iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorous, and other minerals and vitamins in lesser amounts. Blackstrap molasses is richer in all nutrient, including the B vitamins, and is a good source of natural sugar.


Nuts and seeds are compact sources of nutritive values. Some of the oldest and best of nature's products, botanically one-seeded fruits, but differing widely in appearance and composition from foods commonly called fruits, placing them in a class by themselves. Nuts and seeds are packed sources of protein, Fat, and Carbohydrates. Most of them are good sources of B vitamins, and minerals such as calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Iron, potassium, Copper and Zinc. Many nuts are also well supplied with Vitamin E, Folic acid and fibre, and when thoroughly chewed, used in moderation, and combined with grains, are a main source of protein for vegetarians, and part of a well-balanced diet.

OILS (Unsaturated Fats) (non-hydrogenated oils)

In vegetable form, unsaturated fatty acids (Vit. F) are abundant in Nuts, Seeds, Peas, Beans, various number of grains and a few fruits such as olives and avocado. Oils such as Safflower, Sunflower, Corn, Soybean, Peanut and Olive are good sources. Pure, extra virgin olive oil is not only a light and delicate addition to many wonderful dishes, it is one of the most health-promoting types of oils available. Studies on olive oil and atherosclerosis reveal that particles of LDL cholesterol (the potentially harmful cholesterol) that contain the monounsaturated fats of olive oil are less likely to become oxidized. Since only oxidized cholesterol sticks to artery walls, eventually forming the plaques that can lead to a heart attack or stroke, preventing the oxidation of cholesterol is a good way to help prevent atherosclerosis. Substituting olive oil, a monounsaturated fat or MUFA, for saturated fat in your diet can translate into a small but significant loss of both body weight and fat mass without changing anything else about your diet or increasing your physical activity, suggests a study published in the September 2003 issue of the British Journal of Nutrition.

Unsaturated fats are the essential part of the diet, providing energy, as carriers for the fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E, K, aiding in the absorption of Vit. D and Calcium, etc. Diets deficient in unsaturated fatty acids could lead to loss of weight and eczematous conditions of the skin. Unsaturated fatty acids, as furnished by nature, in nuts, legumes, grains, and fruits, are found in a state best suited for digestion. Unsaturated fats are typically liquid at room temperature and are therefore often referred to as oils. Most vegetable oils primarily consist of unsaturated fats. But many of them are rendered dangerous during processing. This is done by " hydrogenating" them. Saturated fatty acids are usually hard at room temperature and primarily from animal sources such as butter, lard, tallow, and cream. Vegetable shortening and margerines have undergone " hydrogenation" a process which converts the liquid oils into a more saturated or solid form of fat, which makes them more difficult to digest. Stay away from them at all costs. Just as oil and water don't mix, you and hydrogenated oil don't either.

Vitamin E( 80mg to 120mg / 100g ),  Vitamin  C  and  Beta-Carotene.
There is unconfirmed information that grape seed oil also contains  Vitamin  D.

Average composition of Grape Seed Oil fatty acids
Common Name Acid Name Average Percentage Range
Omega-6 Linoleic acid 69 to 78%
Omega-9 Oleic acid 15 to 20%
Palmitic acid Hexadecanoic acid 5 to 11%
Sterac Acid Octadecanoic acid 3 to 6%
Omega-3 A-Linolenic acid 0.3 to 1%
Palmitoleic acid 9-Hexadecenoic acid 0.5 to 0.70%

Grape seed oil also contains 0.8 to 1.5% unsaponifiables rich in  phenols
(tocopherols) and  steroids  (campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol).


A European aromatic garden herb of the carrot family. Leaves are used to flavor soups, stews, and in its fresh form as a garnish for foods. Rich in   Vitamin A and containing calcium and iron. Remember the more green, the more yellow , the more Vitamin A.


The Hachiya persimmon, an oriental variety, is grown mainly in California. A most delicious and exotic tree fruit. Best eaten when fully ripe and as soft as an over-ripe tomato. Unless fully ripened, its content of tannin will " pucker" the taste. Persimmons are generally picked before fully ripe. Place the fruit on a window sill, having light throughout the day, or put in a paper bag together with an apple cut into quarters. Tie the bag closed and leave in a warm place to hasten ripening. Your patience will be rewarding. The best way to preserve the fruit, after fully ripened, is to freeze it whole. It will keep its delicious flavor until thawed. Eat plain, in combination with other fruits, or whip for delicious desserts. Excellent source of vitamin A.


Layers of bran are removed during process of polishing brown rice into white rice. Rice polish contains valuable vitamins and minerals which are lost in the refining process. High in B1, Niacin, and Phosphorus. Also contains Iron, Potassium and Calcium in lesser amounts. Use much like wheat germ, in breads, on cereals, in granola, or fruit.


The orange-colored aromatic dried stigmas of a species of crocus plants. Used to color and flavor foods. One of the world's most expensive herbs --- comes from Spain. Use sparingly, a little goes a long way. Most pharmacy counters and some markets carry saffron. Can be grown in your garden.

SEA KELP OR DULSE (Salt Substitute)

Nutritionally these edible seaweeds and many other varieties are very rich sources of necessary minerals. Highly alkaline. Dried algae may contain up to 35% protein, and as little as 3% fat. Valued by weight watchers, pregnant women, nursing mothers and those who want to grow healthy hair. Often used as a salt substitute, or added to soups, stews, rice, or steamed vegetables.


Sea water which has been vacuum dried at low temperature differing from regular table salt in that it contains  trace amounts of minerals found in sea water. Rock salt mined from inland salt mines may contain some trace elements. Both salts may be slightly off color as compared with refined table salt. Salt plays an important role in the body, however only a small amount is needed, therefore any salt should be used sparingly.


Seaweeds or marine plants vary in color from red to purplish-black. Seaweed is harvested off the coastlines of U.S., Japan, Canada and Norway where some of the finest seaweed farming is established. Varieties include Dulse, Nori, Kelp, Komhu, Wakame, Agar (Kanten), also called Agar-agar of Ceylon moss. Sea vegetables or marine algae, vary in percent of nutrients providing an abundant supply of trace elements and mineral salts including (iodine, iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous).Also containing vitamins A, B, C, and Niacin. Nori and Kelp and Dulse have been found to contain traces of Vit. B12 and D.

    Seaweeds are very tasty and highly versatile. Can be served in soups, salads, with vegetables and rice or ground into powder and used as salt. An important source of nutrients for the vegetarian diet.


Made from the hulled sesame seeds which have been ground to a fine paste. Approximately 45% protein and 55% oil, and containing similar nutrients (as above). An easy-to-digest food. Rich in calcium and phosphorous --- good for bones and teeth. Can be mixed with peanut butter or honey for a delicious spread. A nutritious addition to nut milk, cream soups, and baby foods.



A granulated form of unrefined cane sugar, made from cane juice. Sugar in this form is whole food and therefore retains all the vitamins and minerals found in nature. Sucanat is stirred into dry ingredients when making baked goods, because it does not emulsify with creamed ingredients. It imparts many of the same characteristics as brown sugar (which can be substituted for Sucanat on a one for one basis), and is found in health food stores nationwide.


Soybean curd or soy cheese. A staple food in the Orient much like potatoes in America. Tofu is one of the many popular vegetarian sources of high-quality, low cost, cholesterol-free protein. A versatile and delicious food that can be made at home for less than 20 cents per pound, and available at most markets, pre-packed, ready-to-eat. Excellent for dieters --- low in fat, good source of calcium, phosphorous, Iron, B-vitamins, and protein containing all the essential amino acids. Especially nutritious when combined with the complimentary protein in grains. Because of its smooth texture, and digestibility, tofu is an excellent food to supplement baby's diet, providing additional calcium, etc.

Tofu can be prepared in a variety of ways: scrambled (resembling eggs), baked, in soups, salads, meatless entree, on pizza, in cheese cake, dressings, dips, and spreads. Large quantities can be frozen (changes texture), or kept refrigerated for 1-2 weeks.


The seed pod of a tropical climbing orchid. The pod is used in making vanilla flavoring --- usually extracted by alcohol. The vanilla bean is about 6-10" long and possessing a sweet odor. Most of the flavor is in the seeds of this long bean. The seeds may be scraped out or the bean cut in pieces and used for flavoring. Pure vanilla extract is available and although more expensive, gives a richer flavor to desserts, and baked goods. you can make your own vanilla flavoring at home.

YEAST (can be used in place of cheese)

Dried (inactive) nutritional food yeast has long been recognized as an excellent source of many nutritional elements such as protein (amino acids), vitamins and minerals. Primary grown yeasts,are pure strains of microscopic one-celled plants grown in purified cane and beet molasses under controlled conditions, yielding top quality food yeast. primary yeasts are not obtained as a by-product of the brewery or any other manufacturer.

Nutritional yeast may vary in color, flavor and texture, containing 50% high quality protein (all the essential amino acids), B-complex vitamins including Niacin, also Iron, Phosphorous and trace minerals. Some types contain Vit. B-12, an important factor in the vegetarian diet.

The flaked or powdered form is easily dispersed in liquids, and can be stirred into tomato juice for a quick pick-up,May be used in cooking, or sprinkled on toast, popcorn, or spaghetti in place of cheese. Tasty --- and most nutritious too!

NOTE: This glossary of Natural Foods provides a description and/or composition of the foods and does not imply that any single food will provide the minimum daily requirement of nutrients listed.

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